Researchers show Io vaporizing rock gases into atmosphere

Io, satellite of Jupiter, is the most volcanically active and hottest body in the solar system.The hottest spot in the solar system is neither Mercury, Venus, nor St. Louis in the summer. Io, one of the four satellites that the Italian astronomer Galileo discovered orbiting Jupiter almost 400 years ago, takes that prize. The Voyager spacecraft discovered volcanic activity on Io over 20 years ago and subsequent observations show that Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system. The Galileo spacecraft, named in honor of the astronomer Galileo, found volcanic hot spots with temperatures as high as 2,910 Fahrenheit (1,610 Celsius). Now computer models of volcanic eruptions on Io performed by researchers at Washington University in St. Louis show that the lavas are so hot that they are vaporizing sodium, potassium, silicon and iron and probably other gases as well into its atmosphere.

Parents and coaches need to be aware of signs of heat-related illness in young athletes

MatavaChildren who participate in sports or are physically active in hot weather can be at risk for heat-related illnesses. Each year in the United States, there are a number of tragic stories about young athletes who lose their lives after playing or practicing in the heat. The problems can occur when athletes of any age work hard in extreme heat and humidity, but the risks can be even greater in children because children tend to sweat less than adults, making it harder for their bodies to cool off. Matthew Matava, M.D., assistant professor of orthopaedic surgery at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and head team physician for the St. Louis Rams, says parents and coaches need to make sure kids take things slowly and gradually get used to playing and practicing in the heat and humidity. They also need to make it easy for children to get a drink during practice, with more frequent drink breaks as the temperature and humidity levels rise.