Professor and Chief of Surgery Fred T. Murphy performs the first operation, an appendectomy, at Barnes Hospital on Dec. 14, 1915. Five years earlier, the School of Medicine, which was established in 1891, had entered into an agreement with Barnes Hospital and St. Louis Children’s Hospital that allowed the medical school to conduct clinical research and appoint staff members at both hospitals. At that time, Johns Hopkins University was the only American medical school to conduct its clinical work in this fashion. Today, the School of Medicine continues as one of the premier medical schools in the world. In the 2003, U.S. News & World Report rankings, the School of Medicine tied for second place with Johns Hopkins University and Barnes-Jewish Hospital ranked No. 8 in the nation.